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For this study, missing demographic data for marital status, occupation, education, and rank were supplemented with self-reported data from the survey when possible.
This reduced those missing data for at least one demographic characteristic from 1.8 percent to 0.7 percent of the Cohort.
Baseline cross-sectional data presented in this report will be useful as a reference for exploring the health of particular subgroups within the military, such as those in a particular military occupation or those who deployed to a particular geographical area.
Identification of risk groups within the Millennium Cohort will also help target those service groups for interventions; the identification of these risk groups can also be used to generate hypotheses as to how military service influences health status.].
The invited Cohort was sampled from electronic personnel records representing approximately 11.3 percent of the 2.2 million men and women in service as of October 1, 2000.
Enrollment began in July 2001 and ended in June 2003.
Investigation of potential biases in the Millennium Cohort Study have found no differences in healthcare utilization, as measured by hospital encounters and outpatient care, prior to study invitation as a determinant for enrollment (data not yet published).
Investigation of Millennium Cohort self-reported data have been found reliable in test re-test investigations and when comparing to electronically maintained databases and to have high internal consistency within standardized instruments .
Effective military operations require optimal health of deployed service members, and both mental and physical health can be affected by military operations.
US military personnel serving in the Army, Navy, Coast Guard, Air Force, and Marine Corps were selected and oversampled for those with recent deployment experience to Southwest Asia, Bosnia, or Kosovo between 19, Reserve and National Guard members, and female service members to ensure adequate power for statistical inferences over the 21-year follow-up period.
The Millennium Cohort baseline enrollment, designed to invite sufficient numbers of women and recent deployers has been shown to be representative in composition of the US military .
However, a limitation in some of the research following the 1991 Gulf War and more recent conflicts was that comparison populations were unsuitable due to differences in health and composition of deployed and nondeployed personnel .
The Cohort began enrollment for the 21-year longitudinal study in July 2001 and completed enrolling Panel 1 participants in June 2003.